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An almond-based low carbohydrate diet improves depression and glycometabolism in patients with Type 2 Diabetes through modulating gut microbiota and GLP-1: A randomized controlled trial.

Authors: Ren, M., Zhang, H., Qi, J., Hu, A., Jiang, Q., Hou, Y., ... & Wang, X. Journal: Nutrients Year: 2020 Pages: 3036 Volume: 12(10)
Fruits: Almonds
Subject: Depression · Diabetes

Background: A low carbohydrate diet (LCD) is more beneficial for the glycometabolism in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and may be effective in reducing depression. Almond, which is a common nut, has been shown to effectively improve hyperglycemia and depression symptoms. This study aimed to determine the effect of an almond-based LCD (a-LCD) on depression and glycometabolism, as well as gut microbiota and fasting glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in patients with T2DM. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial which compared an a-LCD with a low-fat diet (LFD). Forty-five participants with T2DM at a diabetes club and the Endocrine Division of the First and Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University between December 2018 to December 2019 completed each dietary intervention for 3 months, including 22 in the a-LCD group and 23 in the LFD group. The indicators for depression and biochemical indicators including glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), gut microbiota, and GLP-1 concentration were assessed at the baseline and third month and compared between the two groups. Results: A-LCD significantly improved depression and HbA1c (p <0.01). Meanwhile, a-LCD significantly increased the short chain fatty acid (SCFAs)-producing bacteria RoseburiaRuminococcus and Eubacterium. The GLP-1 concentration in the a-LCD group was higher than that in the LFD group (p <0.05). Conclusions: A-LCD could exert a beneficial effect on depression and glycometabolism in patients with T2DM. We speculate that the role of a-LCD in improving depression in patients with T2DM may be associated with it stimulating the growth of SCFAs-producing bacteria, increasing SCFAs production and GPR43 activation, and further maintaining GLP-1 secretion. In future studies, the SCFAs and GPR43 activation should be further examined.

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