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Pistachio Shell-Derived Carbon Activated with Phosphoric Acid: A More Efficient Procedure to Improve the Performance of Li–S Batteries.

Authors: Benítez, A., Morales, J., & Caballero, Á. Journal: Nanomaterials (Basel) Year: 2020 Pages: 840 Volume: 10(5)
Fruits: Pistachios
Subject: By-products

A sustainable and low-cost lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery was produced by reusing abundant waste from biomass as a raw material. Pistachio shell was the by-product from the agri-food industry chosen to obtain activated carbon with excellent textural properties, which acts as a conductive matrix for sulfur. Pistachio shell-derived carbon activated with phosphoric acid exhibits a high surface area (1345 m2·g-1) and pore volume (0.67 cm3·g-1), together with an interconnected system of micropores and mesopores that is capable of accommodating significant amounts of S and enhancing the charge carrier mobility of the electrochemical reaction. Moreover, preparation of the S composite was carried out by simple wet grinding of the components, eliminating the usual stage of S melting. The cell performance was very satisfactory, both in long-term cycling measurements and in rate capability tests. After the initial cycles required for cell stabilization, it maintained good capacity retention for the 300 cycles measured (the capacity loss was barely 0.85 mAh·g-1 per cycle). In the rate capability test, the capacity released was around 650 mAh·g-1 at 1C, a higher value than that supplied by other activated carbons from nut wastes.

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