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Green production of hydrochar nut group from waste materials in subcritical water medium and investigation of their adsorption performance for Crystal Violet.

Authors: Saleh, M., Isik, Z., Yabalak, E., Yalvac, M., & Dizge, N Journal: Water Environment Research. Year: 2021
Fruits: Hazelnuts · Peanuts · Pistachios · Walnuts
Subject: Sustainability

This study evaluates the production of hydrochars from the outer shells of the nut group (peanut, hazelnut, walnut, and pistachio) in an eco-friendly SWM medium and their effects as adsorbents on the removal of crystal violet (CV) from an aqueous solution. The prepared hydrochars were characterized using Brunauer Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and zeta potential. The adsorption process was optimized based on pH, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, and contact time. The hazelnut hydrochar was found to have the maximum removal efficiency (91%). Optimum conditions were pH of 8, particle size <45um, adsorption time of 60 min, and dye concentration of 25 mg/L. The results of all hydrochars were fitted to the second-order kinetics. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich - Peterson isotherms models were used to explain the relationship between adsorbent and adsorbate. For all hydrochars, CV adsorption was found to be feasible and inherently spontaneous. The use of materials with no commercial value like; the outer shells of the nut group, is considered a method for waste reduction using the SWM method.

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