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Cashew nut shell liquids: Antimicrobial compounds in prevention and control of the oral biofilms.

Authors: Souza, N. O., Cunha, D. A., Rodrigues, N. S., Pereira, A. L., Medeiros, E., Pinheiro, A. A., de Vasconcelos, M. A., do Nascimento Neto, L. G., Bezerra, T. T., Mazzetto, S. E., Lomonaco, D., Teixeira, E. H., & Saboia, V. Journal: Archives of Oral Biology Year: 2021 Pages: 105299 Volume: 133
Fruits: Cashews
Subject: Antimicrobial activity

Objective: The aim was to evaluate the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of natural (n-CNSL) and technical (t-CNSL) cashew nut shell liquid against streptococci and enterococci related to dental caries and chronic apical periodontitis, respectively.
Material and methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined to assess the antimicrobial effect of both CNSLs (n-CSNL and t-CNSL) against S. oralis ATCC 10557, S. sobrinus ATCC 6715, S. parasanguinis ATCC 903, S. mutans UA 159 and E. faecalis ATCC 19433. The antibiofilm activity was evaluated by total biomass quantification, colony forming unit (CFU) counting and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, cytotoxic effect of the substances was evaluated on L929 and HaCat cell lines by MTS assay.
Results: The n-CNSL and t-CNSL showed inhibitory and bactericidal effect against all strains tested in this study, with MIC and MBC values ranging from 1.5 to 25 μg/mL. Overall, both CNSLs showed significant reduction in biomass quantification and enumeration of biofilm-entrapped cells for the strains analyzed, in biofilm formation and preformed biofilms (p < 0.05). In biofilm inhibition assay, the t-CNSL and n-CNSL showed reduction in biomass and CFU number for all bacteria, except in cell viability of S. parasanguinis treated with t-CNSL (p > 0.05). Indeed, SEM images showed a reduction in the amount of biomass, bacterial cells and changes in cellular morphology of S. mutans.
Conclusion: In conclusion, both substances showed effective antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against the strains used in the study, except in viability of S. parasanguinis cells treated with t-CNSL

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