Subject: Cognitive function
Abstract: Scope: We prospectively evaluated the association between self-reported dietary intake and urinary metabolomic markers of habitual nut exposure with cognitive decline over a 3-year follow-up in an older Italian population. Methods and results: We selected 119 older participants, from the InCHIANTI cohort based on self-referred nut intake: the non-nut consumer (n = 72) and the regular nut consumer (≥2.9 g/d, n = 47) groups. Nut exposure was measured at baseline either with the use of a validated food frequency questionnaire or with an HPLC-Q-ToF-MS metabolomic approach. Three years after, 28 from non-consumers group and 10 from consumers group experienced cognitive decline. Dietary nut exposure was characterized by urinary metabolites of polyphenols and fatty acids pathways. Nut consumption estimated either by the dietary marker or by the urinary marker model was in both cases associated with less cognitive decline (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.61,0.99; P = 0.043 and OR: 0.995, 95% CI: 0.991,0.999; P = 0.016, respectively) with AUCs 73.2 (95% CI: 62.9,83.6) and 73.1 (62.5,83.7), respectively. Conclusions: A high intake of nuts may protect older adults from cognitive decline. The use of a panel of metabolites provides accurate and complementary information of the nut exposure and reinforces the results obtained using dietary information. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.